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Agricultural Irrigation

Sulama-zamanının-planlaması

Agricultural Irrigation

Agricultural irrigation is the process of artificially providing water to the soil when there is not enough water available for plants. With agricultural irrigation, plants receive sufficient water, which in turn increases yield and quality. Agricultural irrigation methods, such as surface, overhead, drip, underground, solar-powered, or combined systems, may vary depending on factors such as the source of water, how the water will be transported, and how it will be distributed to the soil.

1. What is Irrigation?

Irrigation is a method that involves artificially providing water to the soil to ensure the normal growth of plants. In agricultural irrigation, an efficient irrigation method should be used to protect surface or underground water sources. In recent years, the use of solar-powered systems, which are widely used and preferred due to their energy-saving benefits, has become possible.

biber-hastalıkları

2. Plant Net Irrigation Water Requirements

Plant net irrigation water requirements are monitored based on meteorological station data. These data calculate the amount of water needed by plants, taking into account factors such as weather conditions, soil moisture, soil type, and plant species.

Meteorological station data is essential for determining the amount of water needed by plants. This data includes factors such as daily or weekly precipitation, humidity, air temperature, and wind speed. These data are used to determine the amount of water required by plants.

The net irrigation water requirement of plants can vary according to agricultural irrigation methods. For example, when using a surface irrigation system, the amount of water required by plants may be higher because water is lost on the soil surface. When using an underground irrigation system, the amount of water required by plants may be lower because it prevents water loss on the soil surface.

In conclusion, the net irrigation water requirements of plants calculated considering meteorological station data can vary depending on agricultural irrigation methods and are essential for the healthy development of plants. By using this data, proper irrigation methods can be applied to increase productivity and protect water resources.

3. Amount of Irrigation Water to be Applied

The amount of irrigation water is calculated based on the water needs of plants and the water-holding capacity of the soil. Considering the soil moisture in the effective root zone of plants, the necessary amount of water is applied to bring the water level in the soil to its water-holding capacity. You can use the calculation tool above for the annual water needs of significant crops in our region.

Factors affecting the amount of irrigation water to be applied:

  1. Plant water needs: Each plant has different water needs, and these needs can change throughout the growing season.
  2. Soil type: Soil type can vary according to its water-holding capacity and permeability.
  3. Soil moisture: Soil moisture in the effective root zone of plants can affect the amount of irrigation water.
  4. Weather conditions: Hot and dry weather conditions increase the water needs of plants, while rainy weather conditions can reduce them.
  5. Size of the cultivated area: The amount of irrigation water can vary depending on the size of the cultivated area.
  6. Irrigation method: Different irrigation methods require different amounts of water. For example, pond irrigation uses less water, while double-row irrigation may require more water.
  7. Plant production purpose: The purpose of plant production can also affect the amount of irrigation water. For example, more water is needed for fruit and vegetable production, while less water is sufficient for flower cultivation.
Neden damla sulama
  • Meteorological data-based factors affecting plant irrigation amounts:
  1. Rainfall amount and frequency 
  2. Amount and duration of sunlight 
  3. Wind speed and direction 
  4. Air temperature and humidity 
  5. Soil moisture 
  6. Age and growth stage of the plant 
  7. Soil type and characteristics (temperature, pH, mineral content, etc.) 
  8. Plant species and water requirements 
  9. Irrigation system and technology 
  10. Size and structure of the agricultural area

4. Factors Affecting Irrigation Water Amount

Factors affecting the amount of irrigation water include: -Meteorological data: factors such as precipitation, soil moisture, wind speed and direction, and solar radiation can affect the amount of irrigation water needed. -Soil type: soil type can affect the soil’s water-holding capacity. For example, sandy soils allow water to drain more easily and may require more frequent irrigation, while clay soils hold water more easily and may require less irrigation. -Plant type: different plants have different water requirements. For example, plants like alfalfa and potatoes require more water, while plants like beans may require less water. -Plant growth stage: the growth stages of plants can also affect their water requirements. For example, fruit trees require more water during fruit development.

5. Determining Irrigation Timing

Some methods that can be used to determine irrigation timing are:

  1. Tensiometer: This device is used to measure soil moisture. It is placed in holes in the ground and the moisture level is determined through indicators on the device, indicating whether it is time to irrigate.

  2. Soil auger: In this method, soil samples are taken to measure moisture and are squeezed in the palm to form a lump. The level of moisture is estimated by looking at the degree to which the soil forms a strip and its color.

  3. Observing the general condition of plants: This method involves observing the overall condition of the plants, as shown in Table 5, to roughly determine the timing of irrigation. For example, water stress in some plants such as clover, potatoes, and beans can cause the leaves to darken and eventually wilt and curl.

  4. Weather conditions: Weather conditions, especially temperature, humidity, and precipitation, can affect soil moisture and the water needs of plants. Therefore, more frequent irrigation may be necessary during hot and dry periods.

  5. Field capacity: Field capacity determines the soil’s water-holding capacity and the amount of water available to plants. Therefore, it is important to consider soil capacity when irrigating.

You can see the irrigation timings for some crops regionally through the graph in the following tool.

Bitki

Su Duyarlı Olduğu Dönem

Su İstek Belirtileri

İlk Su Verme Zamanı

Son Su Verme Zamanı 

Sulama Gün Dönemi

Bağ

Meyvelerin iri koruk büyüklüğü ile tatlılaşmasında 15 gün öncesine kadar

Sürgünlerde büyümenin yavaşlaması, yaprakların koyulaşması

Temmuz Başı 

Ağustos Başı

40-

50

Meyveler

Meyve çekirdeklerinin sertleşme başlangıcından meyve olgunlaşmasından 15 gün öncesine kadar

Sürgünlerde büyümenin yavaşlaması, yaprakların koyulaşması

Mayıs Sonu

Ağustos Başı

100-

110

Yonca

Çiçeklenme başlangıcı ve biçimden sonra

Büyümenin yavaşlaması, sabahın erken saatlerinde yapraklarda pörsüme

Haziran Başı 

Eylül Sonu

160-

180

Yem Bitkileri (Çayır, Mera)

Her otlatmadan sonra

Büyümenin yavaşlaması, sabahın erken saatlerinde yapraklarda pörsüme

Haziran Başı

Eylül Sonu

130-150 

Patates

Yumruların teşekkülünden olgunlaşmasına kadar

Sabahın erken saatlerinde yapraklarda pörsüme

Mayıs Başı 

Haziran Sonu

90-

100

Mısır

Tepe kapsülü teşekkülü ile süt olumuna kadar

Sabahın erken saatlerinde yapraklarda pörsüme ve koyulaşma

Haziran Ortası

Ağustos Başı

50-

70

Çilek

Meyvelerin gelişip olgunlaşmasına kadar

Tahıllar

Sapa kalkma ile başak bağlama arasında  

6. Effective Root Depths for Plants

Irrigation is a process carried out to ensure that the required amount of water for plants is present in the soil at the effective root depth. Effective root depth is the depth at which plants take eighty percent of the water present in the soil. Therefore, during irrigation, it is necessary to check whether the water reaches the effective root zone depth using a soil moisture sensor. In addition, only the amount of water that the soil can store should be given. If more water is given, the plant roots will not be able to benefit from it. If less water than the field capacity is given to the effective root depth, the plant will face insufficient irrigation and will not be able to take in the required moisture.

General effective root depth information for commonly grown crops.

Bitki Etkili Kök Derinliği (m)
Bağ
90-180
Biber
30-60
Çilek
30-45
Domates
30-60
Fasulye
60
Hıya
45-60
Hububat
60-75
Kavun
75-90
Mera
45
Meyve Ağaçları
90-150
Mısır
75
Patates
60
Soğan
90
Şeker Pancarı
60-90
Yonca
90-180

7. Agricultural Irrigation Methods

  1. Surface Irrigation: Water is applied to the field by jet or hose. This method is one of the most commonly used methods.

  2. Subsurface Irrigation: Water is delivered to the plants through an underground pipe system. This method allows water to stay in the soil for a longer period and meets the water needs of the plants.

  3. Vertical Irrigation: Water is delivered to the soil through a vertical pipe system. This method allows water to stay in the soil for a longer period and meets the water needs of the plants.

  4. Flood Irrigation: Water is taken from a lake or reservoir and applied to the field as a flood. This method allows water to stay in the soil for a longer period and meets the water needs of the plants.

  5. Furrow Irrigation: Water is delivered to the plants through a drainage system created on the field. This method allows water to stay in the soil for a longer period and meets the water needs of the plants.

  6. Subirrigation: Water is applied to the plants from underground water wells. This method allows water to stay in the soil for a longer period and meets the water needs of the plants.

Agricultural Irrigation

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